Khadim Ali was born in Pakistan, and his recent work focuses on the relationship of Afghanistan to refugees who have relocated to his home country. Following the style of miniature painting, specifically that which uses the technique of neem rang (half-color), Ali employs traditional production methods. The Guggenheim acquired for its collection three works from Alis Rustam Series (2011–12), paintings inspired by heroes and legends of the Persian epic poem, Shahnameh (Book of kings). Alis works have been featured in the shared Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Pavilion at the 2009 Venice Biennale and Documenta 13 (2012). He organized and participated in The Haunted Lotus: Contemporary Art from Kabul, Cross Art Projects, Sydney (2012); and The Force of Forgetting, Lismore Regional Gallery, Australia (2011). Ali lives and works in Sydney, Quetta, and Kabul.